The two most common types of ceramic water filters are pot-type and candle-type filters. Ceramic filter systems consist of a porous ceramic filter that is attached to or sits on top of a plastic or ceramic receptacle. Contaminated water is poured into a top container. It passes through the filter(s) into the receptacle below. The lower receptacle usually is fitted with a tap. su arıtma cihazı markaları
Contaminants larger than the minute holes of the ceramic structure will remain in the top half of the unit. The filter(s) can be cleaned by brushing them with a soft brush and rinsing them with clean water. Hot water and soap can also be used.
In stationary use, ceramic candles have mechanical, operational, and manufacturing advantages over simple inserts and pots. Filter candles allow sturdy metal and plastic receptacles to be used, which decreases the likelihood of a sanitary failure. Since their filter area is independent of the size of the attachment joint, there is less leakage than other geometries of replaceable filters, and more-expensive, higher-quality gaskets can be used. Since they are protected by the upper receptacle, rather than forming it, they are less likely to be damaged in ordinary use. They are easier to sanitize because the sanitary side is inside the candle. The unsanitary part is outside, where it is easy to clean. They fit more types of receptacles and applications than simple pots and attach to a simple hole in a receptacle. They also can be replaced without replacing the entire upper receptacle, and larger receptacles can simply use more filter candles, permitting filter manufacture to be standardized. If a filter in a multifilter receptacle is found to be broken, the filter hole can be plugged, and use can continue with fewer filters and a longer refill-time until a replacement can be obtained. Also, standardizing the filter makes it economical to keep one or a few filters on hand.
There are also portable ceramic filters, such as the MSR Mini works, which work via manual pumping, and in-line ceramic filters, which filters drinking water that comes through household plumbing. Cleaning these filters is the same as with the clay pot filter but also allows for reverse-flow cleaning, wherein clean water is forced through the filter backward, pushing any contaminants out of the ceramic pores.
The major risks to the success of all forms of ceramic filtration are hairline cracks and cross-contamination. If the unit is dropped or otherwise abused, the brittle nature of ceramic materials can allow fine, barely-visible cracks, allowing larger contaminants through the filter. Work is being done to modify clay/sawdust ratios during manufacture to improve the brittle nature and fracture toughness of these clay ceramic water filter materials. If the “clean” water side of the ceramic membrane is brought into contact with dirty water, hands, cleaning cloths, etc., then the filtration will be ineffective. If such contact occurs, the clean side of the filter should be thoroughly sterilized before reuse.